Diabetes;  What Is It?

Type 1 diabetes is a disease in which the body does not make enough insulin to control blood sugar levels. Type 1 diabetes was previously called insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile diabetes.

Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas. It helps to regulate the body’s blood sugar levels.


During digestion, food is broken down into basic components. The liver processes these nutrients into one type of sugar—glucose. Insulin helps move this sugar into the body’s cells and tissues. The body later uses this stored sugar for energy.

Type 1 diabetes occurs when some or all of the pancreas’s insulin-producing cells are destroyed. This leaves the patient with little or no insulin. Without insulin, sugar accumulates in the bloodstream rather than entering the cells. As a result, the body cannot use this glucose for energy.


When cells can’t use glucose for energy, they have to use something else. As an alternative fuel, the liver produces acidic substances called ketones. These ketones build up in the blood. They make the blood abnormally acidic. This creates a severe, potentially life-threatening condition called ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis can cause heart problems and affect the nervous system. Within hours, it may put a person at risk of coma or death.

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. This means it begins when the body’s immune system attacks cells in the body. In type 1 diabetes, the immune system destroys insulin-producing cells (beta cells) in the pancreas.

Why the immune system attacks the beta cells remains a mystery. Experts suspect that some people are genetically predisposed to the disease. And an environmental factor may act as a trigger. Viral infections and diet are two possible triggers.

Type 1 diabetes is not caused by the amount of sugar in a person’s diet before the disease develops.

Type 1 diabetes is a chronic disease. It is diagnosed most commonly between ages 10 and 16. Type 1 diabetes equally affects males and females.


Symptoms usually come on suddenly and strongly. They include extreme thirst, frequent urination and vomiting.

Children may start to wet the bed again. Weight loss, with no loss of appetite, can be one of the first signs in children.

If the disease is untreated, sugar and ketone buildup in the blood can cause weakness, confusion, coma and even death.

Type 1 diabetes affects all body systems. It can cause serious, potentially life-threatening complications. These include:

  • Eye damage (retinopathy) — Tiny blood vessels at the back of the eye are damaged by high blood sugar. Caught early, retinopathy can be stopped by tightly controlling blood sugar and laser therapy. If blood sugar remains high, retinopathy eventually causes blindness.
  • Nerve damage (neuropathy) — High blood sugar can damage nerves, leading to pain or numbness of the affected body part. Damage to nerves in the feet, legs and hands (peripheral neuropathy) is most common. Nerves that control body functions, such as digestion and urination, also can be damaged.
  • Foot problems — Sores and blisters commonly occur on the feet of people with diabetes. If peripheral neuropathy causes numbness, a sore may not be noticed. It can become infected. Blood circulation can be poor, leading to slow healing. Left untreated, a simple sore can lead to gangrene. Amputation may be necessary.
  • Kidney disease (nephropathy) — High blood sugar can damage the kidneys. If blood sugar remains high, it can lead to kidney failure.
  • Heart and artery disease — People with type 1 diabetes are more likely to have heart disease, strokes and problems related to poor circulation.
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis— This occurs when ketones are made by the body as a substitute for glucose. Symptoms include:
    • Nausea and vomiting
    • Abdominal pain
    • Fatigue
    • Lethargy
    • Coma and death (if ketoacidosis is left untreated)
  • Hypoglycemia— Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) can result from insulin treatment (see Treatment section, below). Hypoglycemia may occur if too much insulin is taken. Or it may occur if not enough carbohydrates are taken in to balance the insulin. Symptoms include:
    • Weakness
    • Dizziness
    • Trembling
    • Sudden sweating
    • Headache
    • Confusion
    • Irritability
    • Blurry or double vision

    Hypoglycemia can lead to coma if it is not corrected by eating or drinking carbohydrates. Glucagon is a substance that makes the liver release glucose into the bloodstream. An injection of glucagon can also correct hypoglycemia.


Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed by a combination of symptoms, a person’s age and blood tests. The blood tests include tests for sugar levels and for other substances.

Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test. Blood is taken in the morning after fasting overnight. Normally, blood sugar levels remain between 70 and 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). Diabetes is diagnosed if a fasting blood sugar level is 126 mg/dL or higher.

Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Blood sugar is measured two hours after drinking 75 grams of glucose. Diabetes is diagnosed if the 2-hour blood sugar level is 200 mg/dL or higher.

Random blood glucose test. A blood sugar of 200 mg/dL or greater at any time of day combined with symptoms of diabetes is sufficient to make the diagnosis.

Hemoglobin A1C (glycohemoglobin). This test measures the average glucose level over the prior two to three months. Diabetes is diagnosed if the hemoglobin A1C level is 6.5% percent or higher

Expected Duration

Type 1 diabetes is a lifelong disease.

People with type 1 diabetes need regular checkups. They must carefully monitor their blood sugar levels every day. They must receive insulin treatment throughout life.

A small number of people can become exceptions to this rule. Some people with diabetes eventually require kidney transplants. A pancreas transplant occasionally can be performed at the same time. Since the new pancreas can make insulin, this can cure the diabetes. Pancreas transplantation is not recommended by itself. It is only considered for people who must have another organ transplanted.


There is no proven way to prevent type 1 diabetes. Vitamin D deficiency, which is very common, may increase the risk of diabetes. However, correcting the deficiency has not been yet shown to prevent diabetes. Likewise, avoiding cow’s milk during infancy may possibly prevent type 1 diabetes in genetically susceptible infants. But there is no definite proof that this prevents the disease.


Treatment of type 1 diabetes requires daily insulin injections. The injected insulin makes up for the insulin that is not produced by the body. Most people with type 1 diabetes need two to four injections per day.

Some people use a syringe for injections. Other patients use semiautomatic injector pens that help to measure precise amounts of insulin. An increasing number of patients use insulin pumps. Insulin pumps deliver a regulated dose of insulin through a needle implanted under the skin. The insulin pump is worn in a pack on the body.

People with type 1 diabetes must properly regulate insulin intake. Enough insulin must be taken to keep blood sugar levels from getting or staying too high. But low blood sugar can also be dangerous. Low blood sugar may occur if too much insulin is taken or if not enough carbohydrates are ingested in to balance the insulin.

In order to properly regulate their insulin intake, people with type 1 diabetes need to monitor their blood sugar levels several times per day. They do this by testing a sample of blood. They must prick their finger and place a small drop of blood on a test strip. The test strip is inserted into a device called a glucose monitor. An accurate reading of blood sugar levels is returned within seconds.

Newer glucose monitors have test strips that take the blood directly from the spot that was pricked. This process requires less blood. Other monitors allow blood to be taken from the forearm, thigh or the fleshy part of the hand. This can be less painful.

People with diabetes need to watch their diets. A healthy diet for someone with type 1 diabetes keeps the amount of glucose in the blood relatively constant. This makes blood glucose levels easier to control with insulin. A person with type 1 diabetes typically is advised to eat, exercise and take insulin at about the same times every day. Regular habits help to keep glucose levels within the normal range.

Fast-acting insulin may be taken as needed, depending on the amount of carbohydrates ingested. Your doctor or dietitian will help you determine the best insulin and diet schedule for you or your child.

People with type 1 diabetes should get regular exercise. Exercise helps to keep the heart and blood vessels healthy. It also helps to control blood sugar by causing muscles to use glucose and by keeping body weight down. Ask your doctor how much and when to exercise to best control your diabetes.

When To Call A Professional

Call your health care professional if you experience a sudden increase in thirst and urination. Unexplained weight loss always should be reported to a physician.

If you or your child have type 1 diabetes, see your doctor regularly to make sure that you are keeping good control of your blood sugar. You should also be checked regularly for early signs of complications such as heart disease, eye problems and skin infections.

Your doctor most likely will suggest that you also visit other specialists regularly. These may include a podiatrist to check your feet and an ophthalmologist to check your eyes for signs of diabetes complications.


People with type 1 diabetes generally adjust quickly to the time and attention that is needed to monitor blood sugar, treat the disease and maintain a normal lifestyle.

As time goes on, the risk of complications is substantial. But it can be reduced greatly if you strictly monitor and control your blood glucose levels.

Additional Resources

American Diabetes Association
ATTN: National Call Center
1701 N. Beauregard St.
Alexandria, VA 22311
Toll-Free: 1-800-342-2383
http://www.diabetes.org/American Dietetic Association
120 South Riverside Plaza
Suite 2000
Chicago, IL 60606-6995
Toll-Free: 1-800-877-1600
http://www.eatright.org/National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse
1 Information Way
Bethesda, MD 20892-3560
Phone: 301-654-3327
Toll-Free: 1-800-860-8747
Fax: 301-907-8906
http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/National Institute of Diabetes & Digestive & Kidney Disorders 
Office of Communications and Public Liaison
Building 31, Room 9A04
31 Center Drive, MSC 2560
Bethesda, MD 20892-2560
Phone: 301-496-4000
http://www.niddk.nih.gov/Weight-Control Information Network
1 Win Way
Bethesda, MD 20892-3665
Phone: 202-828-1025
Toll-Free: 1-877946-4627
Fax: 202-828-1028